To our knowledge, al-Farabi was the first philosopher in the Islamicworld who not only displayed a serious interest in philosophy ofsociety (and religion), but also developed a highly differentiatedaccount thereof. So the role of the ruler of the city is related to the role of its parts, like. Sometimes the gift of prophecy is related to the hard life, full of uncertainty, uneasiness, mental exhausting and misunderstanding from the people. By formulating the rules for the good leadership, by enumerating the main qualities of the perfect leader, al-Farabi presents conceptually new way of thinking, not typical for the rest of Islamic philosophers, whose views were commonly grounded on the traditions of the Muslim countries. So, al-Farabi formulates the principles of ascetic behavior for the perfect leader. Leader’s speech should by full of well chosen stylistic devices and expressive means, emotionally colorful, represented in a good manner of speaking. The perfect leader should take care of his people and state first, and then about his problems. Anyway, all these qualities are impossible to be combined in one personality and it is impossible to find the ideal king or ruler. Mahdi, Mushin. But, in al-Farabi’s opinion, being a prophet is like being a leader; anyway a prophet stands much higher than the state leader, as the first one sees everything from the different point of view. In this paper the main principles of the political philosophy of Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi (870-950) are under the analysis. Al-Farabi also worked at writing books concerning the Muslim sociology, and the most notable of them is so called “The Book of Music”. So the views of al-Farabi served a great source of inspiration for the political, social, economic, cultural and spiritual leaders of the Middle Ages period. Four of his eight musical texts have survived. Although he had some noteworthy predecessors, such as al-Kindi and al-Razi, he was the first philosopher of his epoch to command the unqualified respect of future generations. Alfarabi was the first of all philosophers to try to link political philosophy with Islam. Download. Eminent founder of a philosophical system as he was, he devoted himself entirely to contemplation and speculation and kept himself aloof from political and social perturbations and turmoils. And when he continues his mental exercises, he gains even more knowledge, and this makes him a very wise man that is not afraid to take the responsibility for the lives of the others, and the future of the whole state, on him. While this work undoubtedly embraces Platonic themes, it is in no way an Arabic clone of Plato's Republic. • M. Mahdi, Alfarabi and the Foundations of Islamic Political Philosophy (Chicago: 2001). Melanges de l'Unviversite Saint Joseph, Vol. While in Europe of Middle Ages there appeared to be not easy times for the new way of thinking, because of the conservative influence of the church to the cultural life of people, in the East there appeared new political philosophy, formulated by Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi. He is known for his writing in various fields, including ethics, logic, metaphysics and political philosophy. It will be cleared how al-Farabi managed to gain the respect and trust from the contemporary researchers, for whom this political theory presents a great interest. Political association is needed conceptually, as by their nature none of the humans can live alone. A leader should obtain a fine diction. The object of this research is not only to reproduce the main arguments of the political philosophy of al-Farabi, but also to explain his main arguments in a way of commenting the philosopher’s main points of view. The first philosopher to meet this challenge was al-Fārābī (flourished 9th–10th centuries). He developed the unique philosophy, which was significant for the further studies by the other researchers, both from Muslim and Christian countries. 870-950), his studies of Plato and Aristotle, and his development of an Islamic Political Philosophy. If, for example, the leader is asked to do both evil and injustice, he should definitely refuse at any reason. According to Al-Farabi, the active intellect is the key to the development of human knowledge and involves a force outside of humans and God th… Plato’s principles are mirrored in al-Farabi’s works, but in another shape, acceptable by Eastern civilization. of custom written essay or research paper. Farabi made contributions to the fields of logic, mathematics, music, philosophy, psychology, and education. It is worth to mention that it is of both an Aristotelian and a Neoplatonic dimensions. He has to listen attentively and carefully in order to understand the real intentions of a speaker. In the second part of the paper, twelve qualities of the perfect leader of the state will be presented, which are of the significant importance for the development of the social institutions and a government of a state. Influenced by the works of Greek philosophers, especially by Plato and Aristotle and their concepts of the ideal state and the government, al-Farabi added very important religious concepts, like, for example, the gift of prophecy, like one of the most significant qualities of the leader of the perfect state. Alchemy. HISTORY of POLITICAL THOUGHT Chapter 5 Islamic Political Thought Lecture 9 “Al-Farabi” • Al-Farabi • Turkish philosopher Abu Nasr Muhammad Al-Farabi (870-950) was born in Farab district of Transoxania (Maveraünnehir) in 870 and died in Cairo in 950. The Sunni caliphate’s power hardly extended beyond Baghdad, and it appeared quite likely that the various Shiʿi sects, especially the Ismāʿīlīs, would finally overpower it and establish a new political order. While this work undoubtedly embraces Platonic themes, it is in no way an Arabic clone of Plato's Republic. Trans. This becomes very clear right at the beginning of al-Farabi's work, with its description of the First Cause (Chapters 1-2) and the emanation of 'the Second' from 'The First' (Chapter 3). Retrievered from https://sites01.lsu.edu/, Boer described him as a kind and quiet man, who always wore his Sufi dress. Abu Nasr Al-Farabi (/ˌælfəˈrɑːbi/; Persian: ابو نصر محمد بن محمد فارابی Abū Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al Fārābī; known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned early Islamic philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic. Amongst these are a number of prolegomena to philosophy, commentaries on important Aristotelian works (such as the Nicomachean Ethics) as well as his own works. Abu Nasr al-Farabi is widely regarded as the founder of philosophy within the Islamic world. In spite of facing with many hardships all life long, he worked with a high dedication to his researches that made him famous all over the world. Write My Movie Response Paper: Quick Online Help, Buy Thesis Paper Writing from Exclusive Papers net, Write My Book Review Paper Exclusively for Me, Complete Course Work for Me, Exclusive Papers Writers, Buying a Custom Research Proposal with the Real Benefits, Re Write My Paper: Professionalism and Perfection in Excellent Rewriting, Professional College Excel Projects Help for Students, Exclusive Papers.net - the Best Research Paper Reviser, PowerPoint Presentation for Research Paper, Write My Article Review Homework Assignment, Exclusive Film Reaction Paper Writing Services, Order Professional Business Letter Writing Services, Best Motivation Letter Writing Services Online. White Paper Writing Service: Exclusive Assistance from Expert Writers, Write My Memo Paper: Assistance from a Reliable Writing Service. Al-Farabi had developed his theories and studies under the influence of Neo-Platonism. His theory was formed under special circumstances. A short summary of this paper. By Ibrahim Madkour Abu Nasr al-Farabi was born in about 258/870 and he died in 339/950. Those views correlated with the Greek philosophy, where the concept of happiness was associated with the rank of happiness about obtaining the ideal sovereign, who has “the Active Intellect”. The city, according to al-Farabi, is also like this – the master of it is followed by the subordinates. Al-Farabi’s Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. • He studied in Khorasan and Baghdad. Al-Farabi believed in the existence of the Supreme Being that had invented the world through the balanced intelligence. Besides his immediate pupils, there were … The central theme of this political science is the founder of a virtuous or excellent community. In addition, a good ruler has to manage to solve problems of great actuality, giving people hope for better, even in a very difficult situation. 870-950 A.D.) The following is based on extracts in R. Lerner and M. Mahdi, Medieval Political Philosophy (JA82.L4) from Al-Farabi's 'Book of Agreement between the ideas of the two philosophers, the divine The philosopher started his early education at Bukhara and Farab; he continued his later higher studies in Baghdad, where he lived and worked for years. He worked hardly at clarifying them all life long. 3. "The Meaning of madani in al-Farabi's 'Political' Philosophy." Moreover, the philosopher went to discussion about the music therapy. Al-Farabi describes 2 conditions for good rulership: a leader should be pre-justiced to the rulership by the inborn nature of his; he has to possess the habit of will for the forthcoming leadership. Inorder to highlight these scholarly developments we will follow thetraditional order of the Aristotelian sciences thatal-Fârâbî himself offers in his Enumeration ofthe sciences, ‘Ihsâ’al-‘ulûm, one of his most famous texts, as itsMedieval Latin versions had much influence in the West. In this paper the arguments and main concepts of political philosophy formulated by al-Farabi will be reproduced. Al-Farabi was the first Muslim to write works on political philosophy. At the heart of al-Farabi’s political philosophy is the concept of happiness (sa’ada). • R. Walzer, Al-Fārābī on the Perfect State (Oxford: 1985). These themes are especially prominent in the founder of political philosophy in Islam, al-Farabi, and it is to him that one must first turn. #politicalscience #Farabi #CSS #PMS Political science is a widely opted subject among CSS aspirants. The sciences were organized within this philosophic framework so that logic, physics, mathematics, and metaphysics culminated in a political science whose subject matter is the investigation of happiness and how it can be realized in cities and nations. He left a considerable amount of literature. Pleasure comes from our sensory system, and it often makes us neglect some good and noble actions. 870-950 Travelled in syria, and died in syria Considered the “greatest political philosopher of the period” although his fame was “partially eclipsed by his two great successors (Ibn Sina & Ibn Rushd, known in … In a certain moment only the leader has the right to use them to help to reach the common welfare or a goal. Prophecy and imagination. The work consists of an introduction, three body parts, and a conclusion. So, the heart is the main organ of the body, it stands in the first rank; while the other (lower) organs stand in the second rank, they all execute the aim ordered by the main organ. Al-Farabi (ca. The problems, arisen by the philosopher, are of great actuality nowadays, like they were actual in the Middle Ages. Ketāb al-sīāsa al-madanīya, ed. This theory of al-Farabi’s prefers the existence of the head of the state. Although he had some noteworthy predecessors, such as al-Kindi and al-Razi, he was the first philosopher of his epoch to command the unqualified respect of future generations. His political works were the last of his writings and include al-Siyash al-Madaniyah (Civil Polity), al-Sirah al-Fadilah (Virtuous Regime), and al-Madinah al Fadilab (Virtuous City). Free PDF. Al-Farabi is often described as 'the Second Teacher,' following the ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle, who was called 'the First Teacher.' 4.0 out of 5 stars ... Alfarabi and the Foundation of Islamic Political Philosophy is essential reading for anyone interested in medieval political philosophy. In his opinion, all the actions of people in any case follow two mighty forces – pleasure or pain. God possesses intellectual mind that is possible to change the world with only one decision. Abu Nasr al-Farabi. The virtuous society (al-ijtima’ al-fadil) is defined as that in which people cooperate to gain happiness. From the Back Cover. The leader should obtain the so called free organs that do no perform any of the functions until they are needed. PDF. 870-950), his studies of Plato and Aristotle, and his development of an Islamic Political Philosophy. Whether or not al-Farabi actually intended to outline a political programme in his writings remains a matter of dispute amongst academics. Al-Farabi was a renowned philosopher, jurist, scientist, and music scholar. There is nofull English translation of this text, but Amo… This is about how to gain happiness. Although it is not always easy to know the immediate practical intentions of a philosopher, it must be remembered that in al-Fārābī’s lifetime the fate of the Islamic world was in the balance. Cogito Ergo Sum or I Think Therefore I Am, A Philosophy Paper on Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Purchase Personal Statement Writing Services, Exclusive Article Critique Assignment Help. Different from all these examples, Al Farabi was the man of peaceful times and he was create his theories and hypothesis far from political tensions and turmoil. As the First Cause, according to al-Farabi, is related to God, who is the ideal ruler and unique ruler of the whole Universe. Otherwise, the leader of the country will be a slave of his pleasures and emotions that come out from his inner world. Thus al-Farabi's epistemology, from what has been described both in this section and §2 above, may be said to be encyclopedic in range and complex in articulation, with that articulation using both a Neoplatonic and an Aristotelian voice. While analyzing all the qualities of the perfect leader of the state, which are formulated by al-Farabi, in general and particular, the following was found: So, the political philosophy of al-Farabi presented the way of thinking, which was conceptually new for the developing of the Eastern societies. In his numerous commentaries on Aristotle’s logical works, he expounded for the first time in Arabic the entire range of the scientific and nonscientific forms of argument and established the place of logic as an indispensable prerequisite for philosophic inquiry. By going further, according to al-Farabi, it is possible to become a prophet who is able to rule the nation by the complex of advices on various issues, and, of course, by the revelations, which are sent from the far above. The major attention will be focused on explaining the principles of his political theory as it presents the great interest not only for the researchers of the Middle Ages, but also for the researchers of the modern times. Religion and philosophy are closely related to each other in the works by Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi. Al-Farabi wrote: The Necessity of the Art of the Elixir  Logic. If someone has dropped a hint of a thing, the perfect leader should grasp the concept immediately, no matter how difficult it may be. He should be ready to learn the unknown or new things for the whole life. Alchemy. In comparison with the First Cause, ideally a ruler must possess the good way of thinking, being intellectually perfect one. He should obtain intelligence and wisdom. 870-950 Not much is known about his life. Keywords: al-Farabi, political philosophy. Download Full PDF Package. It is a scoring subject. and trans., Al-Farabi on the Perfect State (Oxford University Press, 1985). In order to make his speech more understandable, a leader should make it easier for perception. Al Farabi’s Political Thoughts and It’s Relevance at Present Time . Abu Nasr al-Farabi is widely regarded as the founder of philosophy within the Islamic world. Not only powerful, but also very mentally strong and wise leader can gain respect of his authority from the community of people called society. Therefore, his ideas free from instability and extremist paroxysm. He saw that theology and the juridical study of the law were derivative phenomena that function within a framework set by the prophet as lawgiver and founder of a human community. His writings on natural science exposed the foundation and assumptions of Aristotle’s physics and dealt with the arguments of Aristotle’s opponents, both philosophers and scientists, pagan, Christian, and Muslim. Create a free account to download . With the help of chosen words, a good leader should be able to lead people through a right pass to their main goal. Once this new philosophical framework was established, it became possible to conduct a philosophical investigation of all the elements that constituted the Islamic community: the prophet-lawgiver, the aims of the divine laws, the legislation of beliefs as well as actions, the role of the successors to the founding legislator, the grounds of the interpretation or reform of the law, the classification of human communities according to their doctrines in addition to their size, and the critique of “ignorant” (pagan), “transgressing,” “falsifying,” and “erring” communities. Al-Farabi influenced many Islamic philosophers, for example Avicenna. Plato’s philosophy was developed by him in a way of expanding it with the prophecy. Anyway, nothing is perfect. Philosophy could not understand this framework of religion as long as it concerned itself almost exclusively with its truth content and confined the study of practical science to individualistic ethics and personal salvation. This work is also characterized by a known Aristotelian stress on the high importance of the knowledge. The perfect leader should be able to plan his life and the lives of people properly. Henry Corbin writes that the evidence supports the opinion common in Iran that al-Farabi was a Shia Muslim. He was also the greatest political philosopher of the early Middle Ages. Al-Farabi travelled through different distant lands to understand the culture of the other nations. He was also the greatest political philosopher of the early Middle Ages. He is a mighty one force, who encourages people to be excellent in all they do, and, therefore, to be happy of it. So, al-Farabi denied the common thought that was popular in the ancient world, as if it is possible to do evil for the good reason. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Sources of Islamic doctrinal and social views, Fundamental practices and institutions of Islam, Origins, nature, and significance of Islamic theology, Background and scope of philosophical interest in Islam, Relation to the Muʿtazilah and interpretation of theological issues, Political philosophy and the study of religion, Distinction between essence and existence and the doctrine of creation, Background and characteristics of the Western Muslim philosophical tradition, Theoretical science and intuitive knowledge, The hidden secret of Avicenna’s “Oriental Philosophy”, The new wisdom: synthesis of philosophy and mysticism, Philosophy, traditionalism, and the new wisdom, Characteristic features of the new wisdom, Critiques of Aristotle in Islamic theology, The teachings of Twelver Shiʿism and the school of Eṣfahān, Tales and legends concerning religious figures, Tales and beliefs about numbers and letters. 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