Consequently, there are currently only two textbooks for the compulsory teaching of Korean history: one for junior high and one for senior high. 36 Saeki Kōji 佐伯弘次, “Kaizoku‑ron” 海賊論 (On Piracy), in Arano Yasunori 荒野泰典, Ishii Masatoshi 石井正敏 and Murai Shōsuke 村井章介, Ajia no naka no nihon‑shi iii アジアのなかの日本史iii (The History of Japan in Asia, vol. Fish, “A Call for Outrage? This system thus gives the Ministry of Education considerable control over the content of textbooks prior to publication. See also Takazaki Sōji 高崎宗司, Han‑Nichi kanjō: Kankoku‑Chōsenjin to nihonjin 反日感情―韓国・朝鮮人と日本人 (Anti‑Japanese Sentiment: Koreans and Japanese), Tokyo, Kōdansha 講談社, 1993, p. 14. . cit., pp. ), Ebisu, no. (A Vile History Textbook), Seoul, Lux Media, The Korean government’s complaints focused essentially on the claim that Koreans and Chinese could be found among, pirates. These polemical books no doubt serve as a reminder that in this controversy the criticisms are not unilateral: often accused of fanning the flames of “anti‑Japanese” sentiment. “Heisei 17 nendo rekishi kōmin kyōkasho no saitaku ni tsuite no ‘Tsukuru‑kai’ seimei” 平成17年度歴史・公民教科書の採択結果についての「つくる会」声明 (Statement by the Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform on the adoption of history and civics textbooks for 2005): http://www.tsukurukai.com/02_about_us/05_adopt.html (23 October 2008). ), Chōsen‑shi 朝鮮史, Yamakawa Shuppan 山川出版, 1993, pp. 3 Officially entitled “Ilbon chunghakkyo kyogwasŏ Han’guk kwallyŏn naeyong sujŏng yogu charyo” 일본 중학교 교과서 한국 관련 내용 수정 요구 자료 (Document demanding the modification of Korea‑related content in junior high school history textbooks), the South Korean government’s request, made to the Japanese ambassador in Seoul on 8 May 2001, concerned 25 passages in the Tsukuru‑kai textbook in addition to 10 passages from seven other textbooks. This will pose new threats to world peace.The author is curator of the Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders. 8The aim of this paper is to consider the “history textbook issue” from both the Japanese and Korean perspectives. Although the research of Yoshimi Yoshiaki and other scholars has clearly demonstrated the Imperial Army’s role in setting up “comfort stations” and recruiting “comfort women”. The question of the legality of the annexation treaties is, as Arnaud Nanta has pointed out, a divisive subject for Japanese and Korean historians. As in Japan, it was in the mid‑1990s (1994 for senior high school textbooks and 1996 for junior high school) that the term “comfort women for the Japanese Army” (. Deprived of the satisfaction of having recovered their independence by their own means, the Koreans found themselves victors of the Second World War without the benefits. . ”. These changes illustrate an encouraging evolution in Korea. A Victory for Freedom? For many, the 1910 annexation marks the culmination of a process that began long before the Meiji Restoration and joins a long list of aggressions by Japan against the Korean peninsula, beginning during the Three Kingdoms period with Yamato’s claims on Mimana. University professors or lecturers, these examiners are hired on the recommendation of previous examiners or members of the Authorisation Council according to criteria that remain vague and place a question mark over the examiners’ impartiality.16, 11The actual selection of junior high school textbooks varies according to the type of school. The unusualness of the 1982 textbook dispute does not lie in its substance. One of the controversial subjects to concern the majority of Japanese textbooks pertains to the composition of pirate bands known as. They considered Korea’s refusal of Japan’s requests to open its doors insulting [burei 無礼] and suggested forcing Korea’s hand through the use of military force.58, 42The Korean government accused the Tsukuru‑kai textbook of bias for presenting the Japanese position without indicating the reasons for the Korean stance, particularly the fact that Japan was threatening to unilaterally break off the friendly relations (kyorin ch’eje 交隣體制) that had existed between the two nations for several centuries.59. In other words, Korea suffered the collateral damage of a more ambitious operation of which it was not the primary target. China, for its part, merely demanded the modification of eight passages from the, (The Problems with Japanese History Textbooks), Seoul, Tongbang Midiŏ, anniversary of the end of the Second World War, in which Murayama Tomiichi apologised (“. ) , “Hanguk ŭi kyogwasŏ undong kŭ sŏngkwa wa kwaje. 75 Atarashii shakai, Rekishi, op. This system thus gives the Ministry of Education considerable control over the content of textbooks prior to publication. On this subject see the article and translation by Vincent. 68In this context, governments should show restraint and leave the task of solving the textbook problem to history and education specialists. Chŏnjaeng kwa p’yŏnghwa ŭi kŭnse Han‑Il kwan’gye: Imjin Waeran kwa t’ongsinsa. 41Although the controversy specifically concerned the factors behind the Seikan‑ron, it also more generally pertained to the portrayal of Korea as a “hermit kingdom”. It forcibly recruited Koreans to work in harsh conditions in mines and factories, and set up a system for conscripting and mobilising students as voluntary soldiers, . ), in Hanguk kwa Ilbon: waegok kwa…, vol. For its part, the Korean history textbook offers the following explanation: However, the Korean government refused this request because the diplomatic letter contained an expression reflecting the Japanese king’s [kugwang. ] 2 Although use of the second edition Tsukuru‑kai textbook (2005) increased significantly compared to the firstedition (2001), it remains below 0.5%. This passage was modified in the second. (17 January 2008). Furthermore, a “Japanese embassy” [Wakan 和館] belonging to the Sō clan was established in Pusan, Korea, housing between 400 and 500 Japanese engaged in trade or intelligence gathering.50, 36Three points were raised by the Korean government. This idea is echoed by many Korean historians: Han Yŏng’u, op. 58 Atarashii rekishi kyōkasho, op. This does not mean that this episode in the two countries’ shared history is not a controversial su, Contrary to what one might think, the annexation of Korea is thus not a particularly problematic subject as far as history textbooks are concerned. Later, during the time of King Sŏng, in addition to Buddhism they introduced scientific techniques such as astronomy, geography and the calendar. Accordingly, I have retained only those subjects posing a problem not merely in the Tsukuru‑kai textbook, but also in Japan’s representative texts —in particular the Tōkyō Shoseki textbook— and which thus denote genuine differences in the two countries’ perception of events. The Japanese education ministry's frequent moves to distort the facts in textbooks are aimed at downplaying Japan's responsibilities for its wartime atrocities. , “Kindai gaikō taisei no sōshutsu: Chōsen no baai o chūshin ni, Higashi ajia‑shi no naka no nihon to chōsen, (Perceptions of Asia in Modern Japan), Minerv. The Ministry of Education’s attempts to whitewash the reality of Japan’s actions in China, by requesting for example that authors replace the term “invasion” (, ), unleashed a flurry of protests within Asia. During this period even women were drafted into so‑called female volunteer battalions. 25On this issue, the current editions of Japan’s major textbooks deviate little from the Tsukuru‑kai. Nonetheless, all Korean scholars, both past and present, categorically refute the idea that Yamato in any way ruled Kaya. La comparaison avec les éditions suivantes des manuels montre en outre que de part et d’autre, certaines leçons ont été tirées afin d’éviter qu’une crise de l’ampleur de 2001 ne se reproduise. In instances where the selection area consists of several municipalities, districts or villages, a deliberation council (. ) English Selection, A digital resources portal for the humanities and social sciences, Cipango - French Journal of Japanese Studies, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Catalogue of 552 journals. 192‑193. His central claim concerning the unconstitutional nature of the textbook authorisation system was rejected. This no doubt explains why along with the Nanking Massacre it is the central focus of Japanese revisionists, who have made it one of their key concerns. RESOLUTION ON REVISION OF THE DISTORTION OF HISTORY IN JAPANESE TEXTBOOKS The Third World Congress of Education International, meeting in Jomtien, Thailand, from 25 to 29 July, 2001: 1. Note: the term comfort women refers to women from the colonies or countries occupied by Japan, such as Korea, China or the Philippines, who were sent to the battlefields and forced to work as sex slaves. Efforts to reach compromise agreements have failed. The same variety of opinions can be found in Korea, in addition to a few more original theories: these include Kim Sŏkhyŏng, who in the 1960s claimed that the Nihon‑fu was located in Japan and not on the Korean peninsula, or Ch’ŏn Kwanu and Kim Hyŏngu, for whom this organ was a sort of headquarters of the Paekche army stationed in Kaya. 138‑139; Takeda Yukio 武田幸男 (ed. […] Claiming [kusil 口實] to require passage through Korea in order to conquer the Ming, he sent more than 200,000 soldiers.46, 33Here the conquest of China is presented as nothing more than an excuse to justify an invasion that in reality targeted Korea. 67 Han‑Il kwan’gyesa hakhwoe 한일관계사학회 (ed. ), Yŏksa kyogwasŏ sok ŭi Hanguk kwa Ilbon 역사교과서 속의 한국과 일본 (Korea and Japan in the History Textbooks), Seoul, Hyean 혜안, 2000, p. 386. , it also more generally pertained to the portrayal of Korea as a “hermit kingdom”. cit., p. 99. Although it was only adopted by a tiny minority of junior high schools,2 this textbook provoked a virulent reaction among Japan’s neighbouring countries, in particular the People’s Republic of China and South Korea. Admittedly, the textbook controversy has convinced many Chinese that Japan has still not managed to rid itself of its militarist demons and that this anomaly is liable to recur. This barbaric practice began in the early 1930s and continued until the defeat of the Japanese Empire in 1945.79, 57Despite the gradual disappearance of any mention of “comfort women” in Japanese textbooks, it should be pointed out that this event is hardly the subject of debate among Japanese and Korean historians, with most specialists largely in agreement with the views of Yoshimi Yoshiaki. 14The first Korean‑language secondary school history textbook was published in May 1946 following the country’s liberation. cit., ii, 1992, p. 233. 20 Kim Hanjong 김한종, Yŏksa kyoyuk kwajŏng kwa kyogwasŏ yŏngu 역사교육과정과 교과서연구 (Textbook Research and the Process of Teaching History), Seoul, Sŏn’in 선인, 2005, pp. Although use of the second edition Tsukuru‑kai textbook (2005) increased significantly compared to the, (2001), it remains below 0.5%. 17 These establishments account for less than 10% of Japanese junior high school students. controversy to Korea’s refusal to “open up”: was signed with the Qing on an equal footing but Korea, which was a tributary state of China, remained closed to Westerners and refused to establish diplomatic relations with the Meiji government. few studies have focused on Korean textbooks and how they are perceived by the Japanese. Japanese History Textbook Raises Concerns Asia Today, 10 July 2001. Consequently, there are currently only two textbooks for the compulsory teaching of Korean history: one for junior high and one for senior high.22, 17Given these circumstances, it is easy for Japanese revisionists to discredit South Korea’s criticisms by presenting them as illustrating the country’s desire to impose its vision of history upon the Japanese.23 However pertinent its demands may be, South Korea undeniably suffers from this comparison to Japan with regards its textbook selection system, a problem of which many Korean historians are also aware.24. Despite opposition from within the academic world, this state stranglehold on history education continues to this day. He simply points out that Hideyoshi requested permission from the Yi Dynasty to transit through Korea in order to invade China. During the time of King Kŭnch’ogo, Ajikki and Wangin travelled to Japan and introduced the Chinese script (hanmun), the Analects of Confucius and the Qianziwen. The removal of all allusions to the fact that voices within Korea accepted the annexation is one striking example. Firstly, they underline Korea’s refusal to modify the traditional context of neighbourly relations between the two countries rather than its refusal to “open up”. His central claim concerning the unconstitutional nature of the textbook authorisation system was rejected. The Annexation of Korea and Japanese Pa. Accounting for twenty‑five of the thirty‑five criticisms formulated by the Korean government during the 2001 crisis, the Tsukuru‑kai textbook was at the heart of the controversy. The Ministry of Education’s attempts to whitewash the reality of Japan’s actions in China, by requesting for example that authors replace the term “invasion” (shinryaku 侵略) by “advancement” (shinshutsu 進出), unleashed a flurry of protests within Asia. This process continued with the invasions by Hideyoshi and simply intensified in the late nineteenth century with the “debate on the Korean expedition”.97. Korea refused and for some time feared a retaliatory attack from the Japanese. Furthermore, the teaching of Japanese and the assimilation policy. 26 (pp. ), Ajia no naka no nihon‑shi, op. It not only started to distort the history and spread the incorrect geographical names but also started to distort the historical heritages of Korea as well. However, the biased view presented by the Tsuruku‑kai textbook is rarely shared by other Japanese texts. It was the first in a series of materials published under the supervision of the United States. They consider the claim that Korea was closed to Japan, or that diplomatic relations between the two countries did not exist until the signing of the Treaty of Kanghwa in 1876, to be erroneous. To date, six textbooks by independent publishing houses have obtained this authorisation. Japanese historians do not seem to have succeeded in imposing these views in the realm of education. The court also ordered the government to pay Ienaga 400,000 yen ($3,320) in compensation.In 1982, the education ministry demanded a textbook change its description that the Japanese army "invaded" northern China into "advanced into." Although use of the second edition Tsukuru‑kai textbook (2005) increased significantly compared to, Officially entitled “Ilbon chunghakkyo kyogwasŏ Han’guk kwallyŏn naeyong sujŏng yogu charyo”, After two decades of relative calm, a new crisis broke out in 2001 following the publication of a nationalist textbook by the Japanese Society for History, Reform (Atarashii Rekishi Kyōkasho o Tsukuru‑kai. Although the term comfort women has practically disappeared from junior. was designed to use Korea as a diversion to solve a domestic problem within Japan. Their conclusions are then sent to the education boards of the various municipalities, which take them into account when making their final decision. 42, 51. These revisionists regard as ‘masochistic’ any characterisation of Japan’s military advances in Asia during the pre-World War II period as an ‘invasion’. And yet, as Nohira Shunsui has pointed out, the legitimacy of Korea’s criticisms over the shortcomings of Japanese textbooks does not mean that the historical consciousness of the Koreans is above reproach.11, 6While the Japanese government has never officially criticised Korean textbooks, voices close to the Tsukuru‑kai have not failed to identify certain problematic aspects, including an overly nationalistic perspective12 and a simplistic portrayal of Japan, which is described essentially as an aggressor or a diligent student that absorbed Korea’s “advanced” culture over hundreds of years.13, 7These polemical books no doubt serve as a reminder that in this controversy the criticisms are not unilateral: often accused of fanning the flames of “anti‑Japanese” sentiment,14 history education in Korea is also a source of legitimate concern in Japan. 67Some Korean scholars have accompanied this re‑evaluation with a more balanced examination of the way history is taught in Japan. . . […] Claiming. pirates were as “Chinese” as they were “Japanese”. Moreover, while Toyotomi Hideyoshi was not devoid of territorial ambitions regarding the “continent”, including China, his overriding motive was to channel the discontent of all the Japanese left out of the country’s unification and reorganisation process, most of all the warriors. The removal of all allusions to the fact that voices within Korea accepted the annexation is one striking example. In addition to managing diplomatic relations, the Tsushima domain obtained permission to trade [with Korea]. 1, op. 28 In 2002 the usage rates for these junior high school textbooks were as follows: Tōkyō Shoseki 東京書籍 (51.2%), Ōsaka Shoseki 大阪書籍 (14%), Kyōiku Shuppan 教育出版 (13%), Teikoku Shoin 帝国書院 (10.9%), Nihon Shoseki Shinsha 日本書籍新社 (5.9%), Shimizu Shoin 清水書院 (2.5%), Nihon Bunkyō Shuppan 日本文教出版 (2.3%). Advanced ” culture Korean king, as well as techniques for constructing dykes and castles sŏngkwak... 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